Inconel Alloy 625 (UNS designation N06625) is a nickel-based superalloy that possesses high strength properties and resistance to elevated temperatures. It also demonstrates remarkable protection against corrosion and oxidation. Its ability to withstand high stress and a wide range of temperatures, both in and out of water, as well as being able to resist corrosion while being exposed to highly acidic environments makes it a fitting choice for nuclear and marine applications.Inconel 625 was developed in the 1960s with the purpose of creating a material that could be used for steam-line piping. Some modifications were made to its original composition that have enabled it to be even more creep-resistant and weldable. Because of this, the uses of Inconel 625 have expanded into a wide range of industries such as the chemical processing industry, and for marine and nuclear applications to make pumps and valves and other high-pressure equipment.Because of the metal's high Niobium (Nb) levels as well as its exposure to harsh environments and high temperatures, there was concern about the weldability of Inconel 625. Studies were therefore conducted to test the metal's weldability, tensile strength and creep resistance, and Inconel 625 was found to be an ideal choice for welding. Other well-known names for Inconel 625 are Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625, Nicrofer 6020, Altemp 625 and Chronic 625
Inconel 718 is a Gamma Prime strengthened alloy with excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, as well as cryogenic temperatures. Suitable for temperatures upto around 1300 F. Can be readily worked and age hardened.Excellent strength from -423 degrees F to 1300 degrees F (-253 degrees C to 705 degrees C). Age hardenable and may be welded in fully aged condition, Excellent oxidation resistance up to 1800 degrees F (980 degrees C). Typically sold in the solution annealed temper, but can be ordered aged, cold worked, or cold worked & aged.The high chromium and molybdenum contents of Alloy 718 impart excellent resistance to uniform and localized corrosion, such as pitting in many media at both high and low temperatures. The chromium also enables it to withstand chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking which makes it an excellent alloy for service in oil and sour gas (H2S containing) environments as well as seawater.Alloy 718 is generally only used for applications not exceeding 700 °C (1300 °F). However, oxidation resistance up to 1000 °C (1830 °F) is particularly high and comparable to that of other gamma-prime (γ’) strengthened superalloys
Alloy 800 - The 800 series of alloy (Incoloy 800, 800H and 800HT) are nickel-iron-chromium superalloys that have excellent properties of high temperature strength and resistance to oxidation, carburization and other types of high temperature corrosion. Alloy 800, 800H and 800HT are used in various applications from furnace components, petrochemical furnace cracker tubes to sheathing for electrical heating elements. Application: Chemical and petrochemical process piping, heat exchangers, furnace components, carburizing equipment, heating-element sheathing, and nuclear power steam-generator tubing.
In the oil and gas industry, the two most important nickel alloys are Inconel 625 and Incoloy 825. lncoloy 825 is an austenitic nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum-copper alloy containing high levels of chromium, nickel, copper, and molybdenum to provide high levels of corrosion resistance to both moderately oxidizing and moderately reducing environments. This balance of alloying elements grants this alloy exceptional resistance to both chloride stress corrosion cracking, as well as crevice corrosion and general corrosion. It is the high level of nickel in combination with the amount of molybdenum and copper in this nickel alloy produces substantially improved corrosion resistance in a corrosive environment such as reducing environments compared to stainless steel. The addition of titanium in this alloy also helps to stabilize the alloy against intergranular corrosion. Chloride stress corrosion cracking is a type of localized intergranular corrosion on materials that are put under tensile strength, in high temperatures and in an environment that includes oxygen and chloride ions such as seawater.As an austenitic, nickel alloy, the material is ductile over a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to well more than 1000 °F (538 °C). Fabricability is typical for a nickel alloy, with the material readily formable and weldable by a variety of techniques.
HASTELLOY C276 is a Nickel-chromium-molybdenum wrought alloy that is considered the most versatile corrosion resistant alloy available. This alloy is resistant to the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone, thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in an as welded condition. Alloy C-276 also has excellent resistance to pitting, stress-corrosion cracking and oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900°F. Alloy C-276 has exceptional resistance to a wide variety of chemical environments.HASTELLOY C276 is one of the few alloys resistant to wet chloride gas, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide solutions.HASTELLOY C276 has exceptional resistance to strong solutions of oxidizing salts, such as ferric and cupric chlorides.HASTELLOY C276 is not prone to grain boundary precipitation in the as welded condition and therefore suitable for many chemicalprocess applications.Alloy C-276 has excellent resistance to localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and to both oxidizing and reducing media, thus making it suitable for a wide variety of chemical process environments, including ferric and cupric chlorides, hot contaminated media (organic and inorganic), formic and acetic acids, seawater and brine solutions. It is one of the few materials that withstands the corrosive effects of wet chlorine gas, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide.
Monel 400 material is a nickel-copper alloy (about 67% Ni – 23% Cu) that is resistant to sea water and steam at high temperatures as well as to salt and caustic solutions. Alloy 400 is a solid solution alloy that can only be hardened by cold working. This nickel alloy exhibits characteristics like good corrosion resistance, good weldability, and high strength. A low corrosion rate in rapidly flowing brackish or seawater combined with excellent resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in most freshwaters, and its resistance to a variety of corrosive conditions led to its wide use in marine applications and other non-oxidizing chloride solutions. This nickel alloy is particularly resistant to hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids when they are de-aerated. As would be expected from its high copper content, alloy 400 is rapidly attacked by nitric acid and ammonia systems.Alloy 400 is a very versatile corrosion resistant material. It exhibits resistance to corrosion in many reducing environments, and it is generally more resistant than higher copper alloys to oxidizing media. Alloy 400 is one of the few materials that will withstand contact with fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen fluoride or their derivatives. The alloy has been found to offer exceptional resistance to hydrofluoric acid in all concentrations up to the boiling point. Alloy 400 also resists sulfuric and hydrochloric acids under reducing conditions. It has outstanding resistance to neutral and alkaline salts and has been utilized for many years as a material of construction for salt plants.Alloy 400 is one of the most widely used materials for marine applications, shipbuilding and seawater desalination plants. The alloy exhibits very low rates of corrosion in flowing sea or brackish water. However, under stagnant conditions, the alloy can encounter crevice and pitting corrosion. Alloy 400 resists stress corrosion cracking and pitting in most fresh and industrial water applications.
ALLOY601 is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloy with additions of Al + Ti• outstanding resistance to oxidation at high temperatures• good resistance to carburizing conditions• good mechanical properties at both room and elevated temperatures• good resistance to stress-corrosion crackingAlloy 601 is specifically recommended for service above 550 °C (1022 °F) because of higher creep-rupture properties, resulting from controlled carbon content and coarse grain size.
The extremely low carbon and silicon content of Alloy B2 reduces precipitation of carbides and other phases in the heat-affected zone of welds and ensures adequate corrosion resistance even in the welded condition.Alloy B2 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in aggressive reducing media such as hydrochloric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, as well as in medium-concentrated sulphuric acid even with limited chloride contamination. It can also be used in acetic and phosphoric acids. Optimum corrosion resistance can be obtained only if the material is in the correct metallurgical condition and exibits a clean structure.
B-3® alloy has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, to stress-corrosion cracking and to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack. The improved thermal stability of B-3® alloy minimizes the problems associated with fabrication of B-2 alloy components. This is due to the reduced tendency to precipitate deleterious intermetallic phases in B-3® alloy, thereby, affording it greater ductility than B-2 alloy during and following various thermal cycling conditions. B-3® alloy has good overall forming and welding characteristics. It may be forged or otherwise hot-worked, providing that it is held at 2250°F. (1230°C) for a time sufficient to bring the entire piece to temperature. Since it is a low carbon alloy, the use of lower hot finishing temperatures may be necessary to achieve grain size control. B-3® alloy may also be formed by cold working. Although it does work-harden somewhat rapidly, B-3® alloy components can be made using all common cold forming techniques. Limited tests in boiling 20 percent hydrochloric acid indicate that the uniform corrosion resistance of B-3® alloy is not affected by cold reductions up to 50 percent as compared to that of the alloy in the solution heat-treated condition.
The exceptional corrosion resistance of C22 has promoted its use in many different markets wherever harsh environments are encountered, including the chemical process, pharmaceutical, food processing, oil & gas, power generation, and the paper industries. CRA offers specialty alloy C22 seamless pipe & tube for use in multiple industries and applications, including:● Chemical Processing● Food Processing● Pharmaceutical Industry● Oil & Gas● Power Generation● Pulp & Paper Industries
· Manufacture and handling of sodium hydroxide, particularly at temperature above 300C.· Production of viscose rayon. Manufacture of soap.· Analine hydrochloride production and in the chlorination of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, methane and ethane.· Manufacture of vinyl chloride monomer.· Reactors and vessels in which fluorine is generated and reacted with hydrocarbons.